Gateway of Last Resort on a Cisco Router/Switch

Check out the following link on Cisco’s site:

Configuring a Gateway of Last Resort Using IP Commands

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Routing Protocol Resources on Cisco’s Site

The following links will take you to Cisco’s Site providing detailed explanation of each Routing Protocol & also tons of guides that can take you from novice to expert level:

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The Internet Is Infected


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CISSP (Computer Information Systems Security Professional) Exam is based on the following 10 CBK (Common Body of Knowledge) Domains defined by (ISC)2 or International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium:



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Computer Crime & Intellectual Property Section

United States Department of Justice provides computer crime related information for public awareness on their Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section here:

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Did You Know?

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Time-Based ACL for ISDN Connectivity

There are 4 things to consider:

1. Define the Time-Range (under global config mode):
time-range isdn-hours
absolute start 00:00 01 January 2009
periodic weekdays 7:00 to 19:00

2. An Access List needs to be created for defining the interesting traffic & tying the Time-Range (under global config mode):
access-list 100 remark ACL for ISDN interesting traffic definition
access-list 100 deny ospf any any
access-list 100 permit ip any any time-range isdn-hours

3. Create a Dialer List with a Reference to access-list 100, as follows (under global config mode):
dialer-list 1 protocol ip list 100

4. Apply the Dialer List to the ISDN Interface (under global config mode):
interface BRI0
dialer-group 1

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How to Upgrade IOS Image on a Cisco Router/Switch?

There are a couple of pieces to this puzzle. Here is a list of things you need to successfully perform this operation:

1) Router or a Switch you would like to upgrade
2) Console Cable
3) Straight Through Ethernet Cable (CAT5)
4) PC
5) TFTP Server (

Here is a step-by-step of what needs to be done to perform the upgrade:

1. First of all, you would need to connect your Console Cable’s RJ-45 end into the Router’s or Switch’s Console Port.
2. The other end of the Console Cable that has a DB9 Connector needs to be plugged into the Serial Port of the PC.
3. Now open up your favorite program to launch console. Or you can use Hyper-terminal (comes free with Windows). Here are a few snapshots of Hyper-Terminal settings to get you started:


4. Once you are done. You should be at a user prompt followed by a “>” sign. Now type in “enable” to get to “#” prompt also known as exec prompt.
5. Now the other important piece of the puzzle you need to focus on is running a TFTP Server on your PC. Once you have the software downloaded as mentioned above, you can then go ahead & launch it.
6. Once the TFTP Server is running on a PC. Make sure you point the path on the Server to the appropriate IOS image. Here are a few snapshots of the SolarWinds TFTP Server config:


7. Now the last piece of the puzzle is the Ethernet Connection between the Router/Switch & PC. Connect any of the available ethernet/fast-ethernet ports on your Router/Switch to your PC’s Ethernet Port via a CAT5 cable. Make sure its a stright-thru cable since you are connecting two dislike devices.
8. Now assign a manual IP address on each end of the Ethernet Connection. For Example: on the PC, assign /24 & on the Router/Switch assign /24. Once done, try pinging either from your PC’s command prompt or your Router/Switch’s CLI mode via the Hyper-Terminal or any Terminal program of your choice.
9. Here is the final step: type in the following command under exec prompt:
Router#copy tftp: flash:
hit enter
Address or name of remote host []?
here you have to type in the IP address of your TFTP Server, which in this case happens to be the same as your PC’s IP address.
10. Then ok all the way & the image push should start immediately.
11. Once the image is done pushing & you get a message indicating that the IOS image push was successful. Make sure you see the image on the flash. You can check this by typing in “show flash” under exec prompt.
12. And last but not least, don’t forget to REBOOT. Reboot is what forces the router to initialize the new IOS image. You can reboot the Router/Switch via “reload” command under exec prompt.

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Most Common TCP/UDP – Transport Layer Ports!!!


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Picture of the Internet

Visualization of various routes through a portion of the Internet. (Reference:


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